Preventing, diagnosing and treating diabetes mellitus

Dr. Oprescu Andreea Silvia, specialist in diabetes mellitus, nutrition and metabolic diseases, from Saint Lukas Hospital Polyclinic, cautions regarding this affliction.

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic, complex affliction that needs continuous medical treatment, patient training and monitoring programs, the purpose being the prevention of acute and chronic complications of diabetes mellitus.
Thus, it is important to discover this affliction as early as possible.
Approximate 2 million Romanians suffer from diabetes mellitus thus the affliction is in 11,6% of the country’s population.

These results are according to the most recent study (The National Study regarding the Prevalence of Diabetes, Pre-diabetes, Overweight, Dyslipidemia, Hiperuricemia and Chronic Kidney Disease – PREDATORR) and have been presented in premiere at the 40th Congress of the Romanian Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Disease Society in May 2014.

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most widespread choric diseases that affect the entire metabolism. The main causes for the occurrence of this disease may be hereditary factors (in the case of type 1 diabetes mellitus) obesity, old age, stress or sedentary life style (as in case of type 2 diabetes mellitus)
According to the statistics supplied by the International Diabetes Federation, in 2012, the number of people affected by diabetes in Romania was 1,5 million. During two years there is an increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus by approximately 4%.
In the moment, Romania is the second country in Europe after Turkey, regarding the prevalence of diabetes mellitus.

Depending on the etiology and the clinical disease manifestations there are four distinct types of diabetes mellitus:

  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus (10% of all diabetes cases, characterized by an absolute insulin deficit having a maximum incidence during childhood and adolescence);
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus (90% of all diabetes cases, it is frequently associated by overweight/obesity);
  • Pregnancy diabetes;
  • Other types of diabetes mellitus.

Overweight or obese persons that present one or more additional risk factors (sedentary lifestyle, Ist degree relatives with type 2 diabetes, arterial hypertension, pregnancy diabetes in the medical history, modified tolerance for glucose/ fasting blood sugar, polycystic ovary in women, women that have given birth to babies larger than 4000, Triglycerides >250mg/dl, HDLC<35 mg/dl, history of cardio-vascular disease), are considered at risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Screening these persons in order to detect type 2 diabetes mellitus is mandatory!

The more rapid the intervention of the modifiable factors (weight loss, orientation towards a healthier diet, daily physical exercise, renouncing smoking) may prevent the occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus or may improve the quality of patients with diabetes mellitus.

Taking care of diabetes mellitus has more stages:

  • Evaluating the clinical-metabolic status;
  • Optimizing the life style;
  • Establishing the medical treatment;
  • Therapeutically education;
  • Current monitoring;
  • Periodic evaluation.

All these stages are individualized depending on the characteristics of each patient.